Super resolution microscopy was developed to overcome the Abbe diffraction limit, which effects conventional optical microscopy, in order to study the smaller components of biological systems. In recent years nanomaterials have been explored as luminescent probes for super resolution microscopy, as many have advantages over traditional fluorescent dye molecules. This review will summarize several different types of nanomaterial probes, covering quantum dots, carbon dots, and dye doped nanoparticles. For the purposes of this review the term “nanoparticle” will be limited to polymer-based, protein-based, and silica-based nanoparticles, including core-shell structured nanoparticles. Luminescent nanomaterials have shown promise as super-resolution probes, and continued research in this area will yield new advances in both materials science and biochemical microscopy at the nanometer scale.