Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men worldwide. The poor prognosis of PC is largely due to late diagnosis of the disease when it has progressed to advanced stages marked by androgen-independence. We interrogated proteomic signatures that embody the transition of PC from an androgen-dependent (AD) to an androgen-independent (AI) state. Methods: We have previously established AD and AI murine PC cell lines, PLum-AD and PLum-AI, respectively, which recapitulate primary and progressive PC at phenotypic and subcellular levels. We statistically surveyed global protein expression profiles in these cell lines. Differential profiles were functionally interrogated by pathways and protein–protein interaction network analyses. Results: Protein expression pattern analysis revealed a total of 683 proteins, among which 99 were significantly differentially altered in PLum-AI cells as compared to PLum-AD cells (45 increased and 54 decreased). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the two different cell lines clearly separated apart, indicating a significant proteome expression difference between them. Four of the proteins (vimentin, catalase, EpCAM, and caspase 3) that were differentially expressed in PLum-AI cells compared to PLum-AD cells were subjected to biochemical validation by Western blotting. Biological process gene ontology (GO) analysis of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated enrichment of biological functions and pathways in PLum-AI cells that are central to PI3 kinase and androgen receptor pathways. Besides, other relevant biological processes that are enriched in PLum-AI cells included cell adhesion and cell migration processes, cell and DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Conclusions: Our protein expression analysis of a murine in vitro model of PC progression identified differential protein spots that denote this progression and that comprise high-potential targets for early treatment of PC with a personalized patient-specific approach. Efforts are underway to functionally assess the potential roles of these proteins as therapeutic targets for PC progression.
- Differential expression analysis
- Prostate cancer
- Signaling pathways
- Therapeutic target