Protective effects of antidepressant citalopram against abnormal APP processing and amyloid beta-induced mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, mitophagy and synaptic toxicities in Alzheimer's disease

Arubala P. Reddy, Xiangling Yin, Neha Sawant, P. Hemachandra Reddy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to study the neuroprotective role of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram, against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple SSRIs, including citalopram, are reported to treat patients with depression, anxiety and AD. However, their protective cellular mechanisms have not been studied completely. In the current study, we investigated the protective role of citalopram against impaired mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitochondrial biogenesis, defective mitophagy and synaptic dysfunction in immortalized mouse primary hippocampal cells (HT22) expressing mutant APP (SWI/IND) mutations. Using quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, biochemical methods and transmission electron microscopy methods, we assessed mutant full-length APP/C-terminal fragments and Aβ levels and mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, mitophagy and synaptic genes in mAPP-HT22 cells and mAPP-HT22 cells treated with citalopram. Increased levels of mRNA levels of mitochondrial fission genes, decreased levels of fusion biogenesis, autophagy, mitophagy and synaptic genes were found in mAPP-HT22 cells relative to WT-HT22 cells. However, mAPP-HT22 cells treated with citalopram compared to mAPP-HT22 cells revealed reduced levels of the mitochondrial fission genes, increased fusion, biogenesis, autophagy, mitophagy and synaptic genes. Our protein data agree with mRNA levels. Transmission electron microscopy revealed significantly increased mitochondrial numbers and reduced mitochondrial length in mAPP-HT22 cells; these were reversed in citalopram-treated mAPP-HT22 cells. Cell survival rates were increased in citalopram-treated mAPP-HT22 relative to citalopram-untreated mAPP-HT22. Further, mAPP and C-terminal fragments werealso reduced in citalopram-treated cells. These findings suggest that citalopram reduces mutant APP and Aβ and mitochondrial toxicities and may have a protective role of mutant APP and Aβ-induced injuries in patients with depression, anxiety and AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)847-864
Number of pages18
JournalHuman molecular genetics
Volume30
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2021

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