Pedestrians are vulnerable road users that need proactive protection. While both autonomous and connected vehicle technologies aim to deliver greater safety benefits, current designs heavily rely on vehicle-based or on-board sensors and lack strategic real-time interactions with pedestrians who do not have any communication means. As pedestrians are passively protected by the system, they might be put into hazardous situations when vehicle-mounted sensors fail to detect their presence. This paper is part of ongoing research that uses roadside light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors to develop a human-in-the-loop system that brings pedestrians into the connected environment. To proactively protect pedestrians, accurate prediction of their intention for crossings at locations, such as unsignalized intersections and street mid-blocks is critical, and this paper presents a modified Naïve Bayes approach for this purpose. It features a probabilistic approach to overcoming the common deficiencies in deterministic methods and provides valuable comparisons between feature-based data processing methods, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and model-based Naïve Bayes approach. A case study was conducted by using a low-cost 16-line LiDAR sensor installed at the roadside. Pedestrians' crossing intention was predicted at a range of 0.5-3 s before actual crossings. The results satisfactorily demonstrated the properties of the modified Naïve Bayes model, as well as its higher flexibility, compared with the ANN approaches in practice.
- Confidence level
- Naïve Bayes
- pedestrian crossing intention
- roadside LiDAR