After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following: The pertinent female anatomy involved in pregnancy and how the surrounding musculoskeletal structures are affected by the gravid uterus and growth of other essential organs. The accompanying physiological alterations along with other associated systemic changes affecting the pregnant woman's ability to exercise. The anatomical and structural issues that contribute to or detract from performing different types of exercises while pregnant. Different prevention measures for common musculoskeletal injuries incurred with exercising while pregnant, to include current recommended standard medical guidelines. Various modes of treatment for common musculoskeletal injuries that can be exacerbated or sustained by a woman while exercising in the pregnant state.