Prevention and management of common musculoskeletal injuries in the aging female athlete

Mimi Zumwalt, Brittany Dowling

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The onset of menopause causes numerous changes in the female athlete’s body. The alteration in hormones, particularly a decrease in estrogen, affects both bone quality AND quantity. This mature life stage herald by the occurrence of menopause is associated with a 3 % increase in bone loss per year. Thus one of the greatest threats to the aging female athlete is decreased bone density with the eventual development of osteoporosis. The reduction in estrogen levels also causes a decline of muscular strength in women. However, with the proper physical training regime, particularly weight bearing plus resistance exercises, bone mass and muscular degeneration can be combated. Aging also exposes the female athlete to certain injuries along with increasing the time to recovery once injured. Prevention of musculoskeletal trauma is the best method to ensure that the aging female athlete will maintain an active lifestyle. Appropriate conditioning programs incorporating strength, flexibility, and mobility, as well as proper nutrition, are crucial in keeping the older female population healthy and active to enhance their life in later years.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Active Female
Subtitle of host publicationHealth Issues Throughout the Lifespan, Second Edition
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9781461488842
ISBN (Print)9781461488835
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • 3 % increase in bone loss
  • Estrogen
  • Flexibility
  • Menopause
  • Mobility
  • Nutrition
  • Osteoporosis
  • Resistance exercises
  • Strength
  • Weight bearing


Dive into the research topics of 'Prevention and management of common musculoskeletal injuries in the aging female athlete'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this