After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following: The fundamental differences in the anatomy, physiology, and body composition between adolescent and adult females in terms of the musculoskeletal system. The relative similarities and pertinent differences between adult males and females concerning the anatomy, body composition, and biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system. Various more common types of orthopedic injuries sustained by adult females involved in certain athletic activities. Several measures for prevention of musculoskeletal injuries incurred by adult female athletes. Different modes of treatment for orthopedic injuries sustained by adult females participating in certain sporting activities.