Prevention and management of common musculoskeletal injuries in the adult female athlete

Mimi Zumwalt, Brittany Dowling

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


As the female athlete transitions into an adult, her body is again under a multitude of changes, primarily from the effects of estrogen. This sexspecific hormone causes the change in body composition, muscular strength, neuromuscular firing, and bone composition. This bodily alteration opens the female athlete up to face different musculoskeletal injuries, with overuse trauma being the most common. However, injury to the knee in general and anterior cruciate ligament in particular is more of a concern for young adult female athletes, with tear rates exceeding male athletes several fold, especially for those participating in soccer and basketball. Current research continues to focus on ACL injury in females, looking at a wide array of potential contributing factors. Prevention of musculoskeletal trauma is crucial in keeping the female athlete healthy, and proper training/conditioning programs can help to reduce injury risk.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Active Female
Subtitle of host publicationHealth Issues Throughout the Lifespan, Second Edition
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9781461488842
ISBN (Print)9781461488835
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • ACL injury in females
  • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • Estrogen
  • Sex-specific hormones
  • Soccer and basketball
  • Training/conditioning programs


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