After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following: The hormonal, physiological, neurological, and anatomical/ musculoskeletal changes in female athletes as they transition from young adulthood into the middle age and beyond. The differences and similarities between older males and females in terms of their body composition, musculoskeletal components, and athletic performance. Various musculoskeletal injuries and orthopedic conditions more common to aging and fairly unique to older female athletes. Several measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in older active females from occurring. Different methods of treatment for orthopedic conditions incurred in aging female athletes to include exercise prescription as recommended by various nationally recognized organizations.