After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following: The important changes from prepubescence to postpubescence in females as far as anatomy and physiology of the musculoskeletal system is concerned. The pertinent differences and similarities between young females and males in terms of anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system. The occurrence of various common musculoskeletal injuries more unique to young female athletes, especially during the adolescent growth spurt. Several measures for prevention of athletic injuries from occurring in preadolescent and adolescent females. Different methods of orthopedic treatment for musculoskeletal injuries incurred by young female athletes, including specific recommendations for a regular conditioning program once healing is complete in order to enhance their physical fitness profile.