Previous research indicates that the NTrainer, a pressurized pacifier programmed to produce pulsed pneumotactile stimulation during gavage feeds, has been found to facilitate non-nutritive suck development and shorten the length of hospital stay when used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Four groups of children, including infants of diabetic mothers (IDM), healthy controls (HI), and those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), or chronic lung disease (CLD), were randomly assigned to an NTrainer therapy or sham ‘control’ condition when in the NICU. At 30 months of age, 113/223 study participants were assessed using standardized language, motor, and cognitive assessments. No significant group differences were evident between the NTrainer and sham groups in language, motor, or cognitive functioning. The NTrainer did not improve nor adversely impact language, cognition, or motor outcomes.