Post-Event Effects: A New Perspective on Giveaway Items Distributed at Sporting Events

Akira Asada, Akiko Arai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to examine how giveaway items distributed at sporting events are used afterward. The results of the content analysis of survey responses and a series of regression analyses showed that people often use, display, and talk about giveaway items after sporting events and that sports teams can encourage consumers to engage in those behaviors by improving the items’ functional, symbolic, and social value. Specifically, when sports teams give away apparel items, they should consider (a) designing items that are useful for social events, errands, or physical activities; (b) offering various size options; and (c) designing fashionable items. When sports teams create memorabilia, they should consider (a) adding a unique function to the items and (b) designing items that reflect unique experiences and identities. As one of the first to examine the post-event effects of giveaway items, the present study provides unique theoretical and practical implications.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Global Sport Management
StateAccepted/In press - 2020


  • Spectator sports
  • brand exposure
  • promotions
  • value perception
  • word of mouth


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