Current and emerging capabilities of plasma-source mass spectrometry (PS-MS) as it is employed for elemental speciation analysis are reviewed. Fundamental concepts and their advantageous aspects, experimental conditions, and analytical performance are described and illustrated by recent examples from the literature. Novel instrumentation, techniques, and strategies for inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), microwave-induced plasma (MIP) mass spectrometry, glow-discharge (GD) mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization (ESI), among others, are described. The use of ionization sources that provide tunable ionization, others that can be modulated between different sets of operating conditions, and others used in parallel is also examined.
- Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
- Elemental speciation
- Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry
- Tunable ionization sources