Pica: A review of recent assessment and treatment procedures

Stacy L. Carter, John J. Wheeler, Michael R. Mayton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The phenomenon of pica has been described within the literature in many ways, from a socially acceptable practice to a life threatening behavior. Recent prevalence rates of pica indicate relatively low occurrence of this phenomenon that makes it difficult to easily identify trends in practices related to pica. Recent literature on pica (1990 to 2002) indicate a trend toward tue of more reinforcement based procedures and less use of more intrusive procedures such as overcorrection, time-out and restraint as was reported in the literature prior to 1990. Most recent studies of pica appear to have an underlying basis in behavior analysis procedures for both assessment and intervention. It appears that recent literature indicates a trend toward frequent use of functional assessment procedures to identify the specific reinforcement involved with pica. This paper reviews some of the recent assessment procedures and treatments of pica based on different etiological models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)346-358
Number of pages13
JournalEducation and Training in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2004


Dive into the research topics of 'Pica: A review of recent assessment and treatment procedures'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this