González-Ittig, R. E., Salazar-Bravo, J., Barquez, R. M. & Gardenal, C. N. (2010). Phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Cricetidae) from Central and South America. -Zoologica Scripta, 39, 511-526.The genus Oligoryzomys includes several species very similar in external morphology, which has resulted in a confusing specific taxonomy. Accurate species identification is particularly important because several species of Oligoryzomys act as natural hosts of hantaviruses affecting humans. Here, we assign specific status to individuals from a wide geographical area of Argentina and Chile using sequences of the mtDNA control region. We also compare cytochrome b sequences of 14 species recognized from Central and South America to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the genus. In addition, the results were analysed using available data on chromosome numbers, and the host-parasite relationships reported for the genus Hantavirus. We confirm the geographical distribution of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Argentina, Chile), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil), Oligoryzomys chacoensis (Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay), Oligoryzomys fornesi (Argentina, Paraguay), Oligoryzomys destructor (Argentina, Bolivia) and Oligoryzomys microtis (Bolivia, Brazil). Oligoryzomys longicaudatus is strongly related to the Oligoryzomys flavescens complex, which comprises four clades; O. nigripes is closely related to Oligoryzomys stramineus, and Oligoryzomys vegetus, to Oligoryzomys fulvescens from Central America. Oligoryzomys chacoensis, O. destructor, O. fornesi, O. longicaudatus, O. microtis, O. nigripes, O. stramineus, Oligoryzomys moojeni, Oligoryzomys rupestris, O. fulvescens and O. vegetus are confirmed as valid species, whereas O. flavescens, Oligoryzomys magellanicus, Oligoryzomys griseolus, Oligoryzomys victus, Oligoryzomys andinus and Oligoryzomys arenalis need exhaustive revision. The sister species to all the remaining entities of the genus was O. microtis, suggesting an Amazonian origin for the genus.