Perchlorate remediation by electrokinetic extraction and electrokinetic injection of substrates

W. Andrew Jackson, Mi Ae Jeon, Todd A. Anderson, John H. Pardue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Perchlorate (ClO 4 -) contamination of groundwater has recently become a major concern across the nation. Electrokinetic (EK) extraction with the simultaneous EK injection of organic material to promote degradation could allow for the efficient removal of perchlorate while simultaneously promoting degradation of perchlorate. Column experiments were conducted to evaluate the technology. Lactate and glycine served as organic substrates to promote degradation after injection into the columns as well as maintaining the pH near neutral. Removal of perchlorate from contaminated materials kaolin, sand, and a natural soil historically contaminated by perchlorate was controlled by the ionic flux of perchlorate and not by transport from the osmotic flux which was only significant for kaolin experiments. Perchlorate was removed from contaminated sand and clay below our detection limits (5 ppb). Both lactic acid and glycine were successfully injected into clay and a sand matrix. Results from a contaminated site soil indicate that the Chemical Oxygen Demand was increased after electrokinetic injection of glycine and lactate. Experiments using soil from a contaminated site confirmed that EK can be used to both remove perchlorate and stimulate bioremediation by the injection of lactate or glycine. The use of EK technology to both remove and provide for continued source removal by bioremediation offers a potential new tool to treat low permeability systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-78
Number of pages14
JournalBioremediation Journal
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2004


  • Bioremediation
  • Biostimulation
  • Electrokinetic extraction
  • Electrokinetic injection
  • Perchlorate


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