A study on perchlorate distribution was conducted in male adult prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Excretion via urine was the major pathway for perchlorate fate in the body, with the highest concentrations of perchlorate detected in urine after exposure to perchlorate through drinking water [250 μg/ml Mg(ClO4)2], and an average of 34% and 88% of perchlorate intake recovered in urine in the 4- and 8-h exposure groups, respectively. Perchlorate mass in kidney, thyroid, blood, and urine were related to perchlorate intake (254.5-2687.7 μg). Perchlorate excretion and depuration patterns via urine were tested further using male adult deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Animals were exposed to perchlorate through dosed drinking water (0, 17, 165, and 1600 ng/ml). Perchlorate concentrations in urine showed a significant difference among the three dosed groups during a 28-day exposure period. However, no difference was found in urine among the three dosages in terms of mass percentage of perchlorate intake from water at each sampling time over the 28-day exposure period. Both concentrations of perchlorate and mass percentage in urine reached a steady state after 1 day in all treatments. On average 46%, 46%, and 61% of perchlorate intake from water was recovered in urine over the exposure period in high, medium, and low dose groups, respectively. Including perchlorate consumption from rodent chow (1.44 ng/g), less than 46% of perchlorate intake was recovered in urine in the high and medium dose groups, and <61% in the low dose group. Three parameter first-order decay models fit the depuration curve very well, with r>0.99 in both the low and high dose groups; half-lives of perchlorate in deer mice were estimated as 9.12 and 7.25 h in the low and high dose groups, respectively. Endogenous generation of perchlorate and/or some degree of retention or metabolism of perchlorate may occur in deer mice, based in part on the uncompleted mass balance in the excretion and depuration experiments. The data reported herein should provide additional insight for perchlorate fate determination in animals and humans and valuable information for perchlorate risk assessment in the environment, especially wildlife.
- Deer mice