Patterns of MMPI-2-restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) validity scale scores observed across veteran affairs settings

Paul B. Ingram, Anthony M. Tarescavage, Yossef S. Ben-Porath, Mary E. Oehlert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The purpose of this investigation is to provide descriptive information on veteran response styles for a variety of VA referral types using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), which has well-supported protocol validity scales. The sample included 17,640 veterans who were administered the MMPI-2-RF between when it was introduced to the VA system in 2013 until May 31, 2015 at any VA in the United States. This study examines frequencies of protocol invalidity based on the MMPI-2-RF's validity scales and provides comprehensive descriptive findings on validity scale scores within the VA. Three distinct trends can be seen. First, a majority of the sample did not elevate any of the validity scales beyond their recommended interpretive cut-scores, indicating that scores on the substantive scales would be deemed valid and interpretable in those cases. Second, elevation rates are higher for the overreporting scales in comparison to the underreporting and non-content-based invalid responding scales. Lastly, a majority of those with an elevation on one overreporting validity indicator also had an elevation on at least one other overreporting scale. Implications for practice and the utility of the MMPI-2-RF within the VA are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-362
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological services
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • MMPI-2-RF
  • Psychological assessment
  • Validity scales
  • Veteran affairs


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