Oral nano-delivery of anticancer ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD, a natural inhibitor of the MDM2 oncogene: Nanoparticle preparation, characterization, in vitro and in vivo anti-prostate cancer activity, and mechanisms of action

Sukesh Voruganti, Jiang Jiang Qin, Sushanta Sarkar, Subhasree Nag, Ismail A. Walbi, Shu Wang, Yuqing Zhao, Wei Wang, Ruiwen Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Mouse Double Minute 2 (MDM2) oncogene plays a critical role in cancer development and progression through p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Both natural and synthetic MDM2 inhibitors have been shown anticancer activity against several human cancers. We have recently identified a novel ginsenoside, 25-OCH3-PPD (GS25), one of the most active anticancer ginsenosides discovered thus far, and have demonstrated its MDM2 inhibition and anticancer activity in various human cancer models, including prostate cancer. However, the oral bioavailability of GS25 is limited, which hampers its further development as an oral anticancer agent. The present study was designed to develop a novel nanoparticle formulation for oral delivery of GS25. After GS25 was successfully encapsulated into PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (GS25NP) and its physicochemical properties were characterized, the efficiency of MDM2 targeting, anticancer efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of human prostate cancer. Our results indicated that, compared with the unencapsulated GS25, GS25NP demonstrated better MDM2 inhibition, improved oral bioavailability and enhanced in vitro and in vivo activities. In conclusion, the validated nano-formulation for GS25 oral delivery improves its molecular targeting, oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy, providing a basis for further development of GS25 as a novel agent for cancer therapy and prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21379-21394
Number of pages16
JournalOncotarget
Volume6
Issue number25
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Ginsenoside
  • MDM2
  • Molecular targeting efficiency
  • Oral delivery
  • PEG-PLGA nanoparticles

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