Optimization of the energy resolution of an ideal ESCA-type hemispherical analyzer

T. J.M. Zouros, E. P. Benis, I. Chatzakis

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The overall base resolution RB of a high throughput ideal hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) equipped with a zoom lens and a position sensitive detector (PSD) placed a distance h from the exit focus plane of the HDA is investigated as a function of h, pre-retardation factor F and beam angle θ0. ℜB is in general a function of the linear lens magnification |ML|o and can be minimized by choosing the optimal linear lens magnification |ML|o under the constraints of the Helmholtz-Lagrange law. Thus, the optimal resolution, ℜB(|ML|o) can be computed as an analytic function of h, F, θ0 and represents the ultimate resolution that can be attained ignoring fringing field effects. These results should be helpful in the efficient design and performance evaluation of any HDA utilizing a focusing lens and PSD as is typical for ESCA-type electron spectrometers.


  • Electron spectroscopy
  • Energy resolution
  • Hemispherical deflector analyzer


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