X-ray diffraction data from Silurian conodonts belonging to various developmental stages of the species Dapsilodus obliquicostatus demonstrate changes in crystallography and degree of nanocrystallite ordering (mosaicity) in both lamellar crown tissue and white matter. The exclusive use of a single species in this study, combined with systematic testing of each element type at multiple locations, provided insight into microstructural and crystallographic differentiation between element type (S a, S b -c, M) as well as between juveniles and adults. A relative increase in the unit cell dimensions a/c ratio of nanocrystallites during growth was apparent in areas demonstrating single-crystal behaviour, but no such relationship was seen in dominantly polycrystalline areas. Systematic variations in mosaicity were identified, with mosaicity (as a proxy for disorder) increasing during growth, as well as along elements from tip to base. These results provide potential insight into the integrity of conodont apatite as a recorder of palaeoseawater chemistry, as well as demonstrate the need to consider the influence of ontogeny and element type on the use of conodonts in palaeothermometry and geochemical investigations.