On the determination of driver reach and barriers

Jingzhou Yang, Karim Abdel-Malek, Kyle Nebel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The design and packaging of vehicle interiors and cockpits has become a science in itself, particularly in recent years where safety is paramount. Significant experimental efforts have been made to study driver reach and barriers as they have a direct effect on performance and safety. This paper presents a rigorous formulation for addressing the reach envelope and barriers therein of a three-point restrained driver and makes a comparison with a lap-restrained driver. The formulation is based on a kinematic model of the driver, which has the upper body and arm characterised as a seven degree of freedom (DOF) for unrestrained and 4DOF for three-point restrained. Those kinematic equations are further developed to address crossability analysis. Visualisation of such barriers and their crossability results within the reach envelope provide significant insight into driver performance and reach zones.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-273
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Vehicle Design
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2005


  • Driver reach
  • Ergonomics
  • SAE
  • Vehicle interior design
  • Workspace


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