Inflammation is largely mediated by immune cells responding to invading pathogens, whereas metabolism is oriented toward producing usable energy for vital cell functions. Immunometabolic alterations are considered key determinants of chronic inflammation, which leads to the development of chronic diseases. Studies have demonstrated that macrophages and the NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome are activated in key metabolic tissues to contribute to increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer disease, and liver diseases. Thus, understanding the tissue-/cell-type-specific regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is crucial for developing intervention strategies. Currently, most of the nutrients and bioactive compounds tested to determine their inflammation-reducing effects are limited to animal models. Future studies need to address how dietary compounds regulate immune and metabolic cell reprograming in humans.
- NLRP3 inflammasome
- anti-inflammatory nutrients