Neck Strength and Endurance and Associated Personal and Work-Related Factors

Suman K. Chowdhury, Yu Zhou, Bocheng Wan, Curran Reddy, Xudong Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: The present study aimed to establish a normative database of neck strength and endurance while exploring personal and work-related factors that can significantly influence neck strength and endurance. Background: A normative database combining both neck strength and endurance and delineating how they are affected by personal and work-related factors is currently lacking. It is needed for the development of tools and guidelines for designing work requiring head-neck exertions to contain the risk of occupational neck pain. Methods: Forty healthy participants (20 males and 20 females) performed sustained-till-exhaustion head-neck exertions, while seated, at 50% and 100% of their maximal efforts in anterior, anterior-superior, and posterior-superior directions in neutral, 40° extended, and 40° flexed neck postures. Exertion force and endurance time data from 38 participants were recorded and analyzed using regression models. Results: Overall, multiple regression analyses of the neck strength and endurance database revealed that head-neck posture is the most significant determinant of both neck strength and endurance. The time of day significantly influenced neck endurance. Among the personal factors, a significant sex effect on neck strength and significant age and body mass index (BMI) effects on neck endurance were identified. Conclusion: The work-related factors play a more significant role in shaping both neck strength and endurance than personal factors and therefore are more important modifiable factors in meeting the physical demands of work. Application: The study findings can aid in work design as well as in pre-employment screening to reduce the incidence of neck pain in the workplace.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1013-1026
Number of pages14
JournalHuman Factors
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • endurance
  • neck pain
  • personal factors
  • strength
  • work-related factors


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