Beef steers (n = 252) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary supplement on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Seven pens of 9 steers (63 steers per treatment) were fed diets supplemented with or without yeast culture (YC) or monensin (MON) and their combination (YC×MON). YC and MON were offered at 2.8 g/kg and 33 mg/kg of dry matter intake, respectively. Environmental sponge samples (from each pen floor, feed bunk, and water trough) were collected on day 0. Rectal fecal grab samples were collected on days 0, 28, 56, 84, 110, and 125. Samples were collected and pooled by pen and analyzed for presumptive E. coli O157:H7 colonies, which were confirmed by a multiplex PCR assay and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. On day 0, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 7.0% of feed bunk samples and 14.3% of pen floor samples but in none of the water trough samples. The 71.4% prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in fecal samples on day 0 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) over time. E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding was not associated with dietary treatment (P > 0.05); however, in cattle fed YC and YC×MON fecal shedding was 0% by day 28. Eight XbaI PFGE subtypes were identified, and a predominant subtype and three closely related subtypes (differing by three or fewer bands) accounted for 78.7% of environmental and fecal isolates characterized. Results from this study indicate that feeding YC to cattle may numerically decrease but not eliminate fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 at the onset of treatment and that certain E. coli O157 subtypes found in the feedlot environment may persist in feedlot cattle.