Growth inhibition of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus with currently available antibiotics is problematic in part due to bacterial biofilm protection. Although recently characterized natural products, including 3′,4′,5-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-flavone , 3′,4′,5,6,7-pentahydroxy-flavone , and 5-hydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxy-flavone , exhibit both antibiotic and biofilm inhibitory activities, the mode of action of such hydroxylated flavonoids with respect to S. aureus inhibition is yet to be characterized. Enzymatic digestion and high-resolution MS analysis of differentially expressed proteins from S. aureus with and without exposure to antibiotic flavonoids (1-3) allowed for the characterization of global protein alterations induced by metabolite treatment. A total of 56, 92, and 110 proteins were differentially expressed with bacterial exposure to 1, 2, or 3, respectively. The connectivity of the identified proteins was characterized using a search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING) with multitargeted S. aureus inhibition of energy metabolism and biosynthesis by the assayed flavonoids. Identifying the mode of action of natural products as antibacterial agents is expected to provide insight into the potential use of flavonoids alone or in combination with known therapeutic agents to effectively control S. aureus infection.
- LC-MS/MS proteomics
- Staphylococcus aureus
- antibacterial flavonoids
- multitargeted bacterial inhibition