Muleshoe Virus and Other Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine or Sigmodontine Rodents in Texas

Mary Louise Milazzo, Maria N.B. Cajimat, Martin H. Richter, Robert D. Bradley, Charles F. Fulhorst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The broad objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of Muleshoe virus and other hantaviruses associated with cricetid rodents in Texas. Anti-hantavirus antibody was found in 38 (3.2%) of 1171 neotomine rodents and 6 (1.8%) of 332 sigmodontine rodents from 10 Texas counties; hantaviral RNA was detected in 23 (71.9%) of 32 antibody-positive rodents. Analyses of nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated Muleshoe virus infection in four hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from northern Texas; Bayou virus, three Texas marsh oryzomys (Oryzomys texensis) from the Gulf Coast; Limestone Canyon virus, five brush mice (Peromyscus boylii) from western Texas; and Sin Nombre virus - five Texas mice (P. attwateri), one Lacey's white-ankled deer mouse (P. laceianus), four white-footed mice (P. leucopus), and one fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens) from northern, central, or southern Texas. The results of this study together with the results of a previous study revealed that Muleshoe virus, perhaps in association with S. hispidus, is distributed across northern Texas. Finally, the results of Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene sequences and pairwise comparisons of complete GPC (amino acid) sequences strengthened support for the notion that Muleshoe virus is distinct from Black Creek Canal virus, Bayou virus, and all other species included in the Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)720-729
Number of pages10
JournalVector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2017


  • Muleshoe virus
  • Sigmodon hispidus
  • cotton rat
  • hantavirus
  • rodent borne


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