DNA sequences from the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b gene were used to infer the systematic relationships of 13 species of wood rats (genus Neotoma). Parsimony, likelihood, and neighbor-joining analyses produced similar topologies in most cases and produced six systematic conclusions. First, results of previous studies were supported in the recognition of N. floridana magister as distinct species (N. magister). Second, evidence was provided for the recognition of cryptic species within N. albigula (N. albigula and N. leucodon) and N. mexicana (N. mexicana, N. isthmica, and N. picta). Third, the subgenus Neotoma is composed of four species groups (floridana, lepida, mexicana, and micropus). Fourth, support was provided for placement of N. stephensi within the lepida species group. Fifth, support was provided for the recognition of Hodomys as a separate genus, sister to Xenomys. Sixth, support for the elevation of the subgenus Teonoma to generic status is discussed.