Variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1143 bp) was examined to estimate the phylogenetic relationships of taxa within the Peromyscus boylii species group. In addition, phylogenetic relationships among the aztecus, boylii, and truei species groups were addressed. Maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and maximum-parsimony (weighted and equally weighted) analyses produced similar topologies with P. boylii, P. beatae, P. simulus, P. stephani, P. madrensis, P. levipes, and three undescribed taxa from western Mexico forming a monophyletic unit. At least two of the undescribed taxa from western Mexico potentially represent species. Members of the P. aztecus species group formed a clade separate from the P. boylii group and should be recognized as a distinct species group. P. sagax, P. polius, and P. pectoralis, formerly placed in the P. boylii species group, generally formed an unresolved polytomy with the P. truei, P. aztecus, and P. boylii species groups. P. attwateri formed a sister taxon relationship with members of the P. truei species group (P. difficilis and P. nasutus) and should be considered a member of this group. Members of the P. truei species group did not form a monophyletic unit, indicating that this species group is not monophyletic and may be composed of two assemblages. (C) 2000 Academic Press.