Modeling the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire–International Version

Jordan A. Gette, Tre D. Gissandaner, Andrew K. Littlefield, Chelsy S. Simmons, Adam T. Schmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are related to a host of deleterious physical and mental health outcomes. The ACE–International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) was developed to assess categories of ACEs (e.g., sexual, emotional, and physical abuse) in internationally representative samples. Though the ACE-IQ has been used world-wide, little work has examined the structure of this measure. Further, much of the modeling techniques implemented lacked theoretical rationale. The present work used two principal components analyses (PCA) to evaluate the ACE-IQ structure using both the identified ACE categories as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and using the ACE-IQ items as individual indicators. Using the WHO method, a two-component structure was indicated. Alternatively, a PCA of the individual items yielded a six-component structure. Results highlight the importance of theoretically grounded measure evaluation and the potential distinctions amongst types of ACEs. Implications and future directions for research and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-538
Number of pages12
JournalChild Maltreatment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • adverse childhood experiences
  • principal component analysis


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