Model study of time-dependent muscle response to pulsed electrical stimulation

Ravindra P. Joshi, Ashutosh Mishra, Shu Xiao, Anderi Pakhomov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


A systems-level model analysis of neuromuscular response to external electrical stimulation is presented. Action potential (AP) generation, dynamics of voltage-based calcium release at the motor endplates controlled by the arrival of APs, and muscle force production are all comprehensively included. Numerical predictions exhibit trends that are qualitatively similar to measurements of muscle response in rats from a burst of cortical stimulation and a nanosecond impulse. Modulation of neural membrane conductances (including possible electroporation) that alters the neural impulse generation frequency is hypothesized as a possible mechanism leading to observed changes in muscle force production. Other possibilities such as calcium release at nerve end endings also exist. It is also proposed that multipulsing strategies and changing the electric field direction by using multielectrode systems would be useful. 2010.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-370
Number of pages10
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2010


  • Calcium dynamics
  • Electroporation
  • High-voltage pulsing
  • Modeling
  • Muscle force


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