We present an ultra-broadband silicon photonic polarization beam splitter (PBS) using adiabatically tapered extreme skin-depth (eskid) waveguides. Highly anisotropic metamaterial claddings of the eskid waveguides suppress the crosstalk of transverse-electric (TE) mode, while the large birefringence of the eskid waveguide efficiently crosscouples the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. Two eskid waveguides are adiabatically tapered to smoothly translate TM mode to the coupled port via mode evolution while keeping theTEmode in the through port. The tapered crosssection of the eskidPBSwas designed numerically, achieving a large bandwidth at 1400-1650 nm with extinction ratios >20 dB.We experimentally demonstrated the tapered-eskid PBS and confirmed its broad bandwidth at 1490-1640 nm, limited by laser bandwidth. With its mode evolution, the tapered-eskid PBS is tolerant to fabrication imperfections and should be crucial for controlling polarizations in photonic circuits.