Aging is a normal process of living being. It has been reported that multiple cellular changes, including oxidative damage/mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening, inflammation, may accelerate the aging process, leading to cellular senescence. These cellular changes induce age-related human diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cardiovascular, cancer, and skin diseases. Changes in somatic and germ-line DNA and epigenetics are reported to play large roles in accelerating the onset of human diseases. Cellular mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases are not completely understood. However, recent discoveries in molecular biology have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential indicators of aging, cellular senescence, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of our chapter is to highlight recent advancements in miRNAs and their involvement in cellular changes in aging, cellular senescence, and AD. This chapter also critically evaluates miRNA-based therapeutic drug targets for aging and age-related diseases, particularly Alzheimer's.