For-profit organizations strive to be as effective and efficient as possible. Lean management has become the de facto standard for resource allocation and decision-making. Previous work has described the pros and cons of lean management, both for short-term competitive positioning and for long-term viability. One of the key problems is how to measure performance such that doing things right (efficiency) does not impair the organization from doing the right thing (effectiveness). Manufacturing firms, as other for-profit organizations, are situated in areas that have a population with an educational system. This creates a local System-of-Systems. The interaction of these systems can be either parasitic, where the success of one requires the sacrifice of another, or symbiotic, where success for one fuels the success in the others. As sustainability concerns become more pervasive, the relationship of efficiency and effectiveness in this System-of-Systems becomes of greater interest. How performance is measured in such an environment is therefore very important. This paper discusses and summarizes the state-of-the-art of measuring productivity and performance in a System-of-Systems environment. The main objective of this paper will be the review of traditional measures of performance in for-profit organizations, in governmental organizations and educational institutions. A comparision of these measures of productivity and performance will provide insight into potential challenges of measurement for a holistic System-of-Systems.