Mean and covariance structures (MACS) analyses of cross-cultural data: Practical and theoretical issues

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Abstract

Practical and theoretical issues are discussed for testing (a) the comparability, or measurement equivalence, of psychological constructs and (b) detecting possible sociocultural differences on the constructs in cross-cultural research designs. Specifically, strong factorial invariance (Meredith, 1993) of each variable's loading and intercept (mean-level) parameters implies that constructs are fundamentally the same in each sociocultural group, and thus comparable. Under this condition, hypotheses about the nature of sociocultural differences and similarities can be confidently and meaningfully tested among the constructs' moments in each sociocultural sample. Some of the issues involved in making such tests are reviewed and explicated within the framework of multiple-group mean and covariance structures analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-76
Number of pages24
JournalMultivariate Behavioral Research
Volume32
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1997

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