This study explores what and how novice teachers learn to teach with mentors in the contexts of a contrived curriculum and teaching organization in China. Drawing on interview, journal, and curriculum data from two Chinese mentor/novice pairs in the same school during a year-long induction program, the study shows the different results and approaches of two novice teachers' learning to teach with their mentors. Such differences were shaped by the conceptions of knowledge, teaching, and learning to teach that the novices and mentors brought into their relationship and the nature of their school curriculum and teaching organizations. The study suggests that the quality of novice learning to teach is not simply dependent on whether novice teachers are working in the context of contrived curriculum and teaching relationships or if they have autonomy in making decisions about their learning to teach. It is also dependent on the ideas of teaching and learning that mentors and novices bring to their relationship, opportunities that the school curriculum and teaching organization create for novices learning to teach and teacher mentoring, and interactions between these factors in the context of mentoring.