Neutron detectors based on B-10 enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h-10BN or h-BN) epilayers have demonstrated the highest thermal neutron detection efficiency among solid-state neutron detectors at about 58%. However, many fundamental transport parameters of h-BN, including the room temperature carrier mobility, minority carrier lifetime, and surface recombination velocity, which are essential to the performance of detectors, are still unknown. We report here the carrier drift mobilities (μ) and lifetimes (τ) of both electrons and holes in h-10BN epilayers measured by using a time-of-flight (TOF) technique. Lateral photoconductive type detectors fabricated from a 65 μm thick freestanding h-10BN epilayer were utilized to carry out the TOF measurements, which revealed μe ∼34 cm2/V s for electrons and μh ∼36 cm2/V s for holes and carrier lifetimes on the order of tens of microseconds. By combining the values of μ measured from TOF with S/μ (the ratio of the surface recombination velocity to mobility) deduced directly from the bias voltage dependence of photocurrent, S for both electrons (Se ∼1.4 × 104 cm/s) and holes (Sh ∼2.7 × 103 cm/s) in h-10BN has been extracted. The determination of these important fundamental parameters (μ, τ, and S) not only provides a better understanding of the carrier dynamics and electrical transport properties of h-BN but is also valuable for further advancing the development of h-BN materials and devices.