In order for colonial settlements, even temporary ones, to work effectively they had to have adequate supplies of labor. This was one of the first problems that faced all European colonies in the Americas, and the English were no exception. Land had to be cleared, shelters had to be built, crops had to be grown for both food and profit, and ships had to be maintained and secured. At the end of the English Civil War in early 1649, King Charles I was put on trial, executed, and the monarchy was abolished. England officially became a republic. Under the leadership of the successful army general Oliver Cromwell, England embarked on an ambitious plan of imperial expansion, beginning first with the conquest and subjugation of Ireland and later Scotland. In the spring of 1660, after another year of failed republican governments, the monarchy was restored. King Charles II returned to England amidst widespread celebrations across the country.
|Title of host publication||The World of Colonial America|
|Subtitle of host publication||An Atlantic Handbook|
|Publisher||Taylor and Francis|
|Number of pages||20|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2017|