Keyes's Model of Mental Health With Personal Growth Initiative as a Parsimonious Predictor

Christine Robitschek, Corey L.M. Keyes

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182 Scopus citations


This research addressed issues at the heart of counseling psychology: operationalizing mental health and identifying parsimonious ways of predicting levels of mental health. The primary purpose of the study was to investigate the replicability of the structure of C. L. M. Keyes's (2002) model of mental health in 2 samples of college students (total N = 244 women and 223 men). Results of confirmatory factor analyses supported this 3-factor model of psychological, social, and emotional well-being, consisting of 14 subdimensions. Furthermore, this model was found to be invariant for men and women in both samples. The secondary purpose was to assess the effectiveness of personal growth initiative (PGI; C. Robitschek, 1998) as a parsimonious predictor (i.e., 1 predictor for many outcomes) of these multiple dimensions of mental health. Results of structural equation modeling supported PGI as a parsimonious predictor of Keyes's multidimensional mental health model for men and women in both groups. Limitations are discussed, and implications for research and practice in counseling psychology are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-329
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of counseling psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • flourishing
  • mental health
  • personal growth initiative
  • subjective well-being


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