## Abstract

To solve an ill-(or well-) conditioned system of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations (NAEs): F(x) = 0, we define a scalar hyper-surface h(x,t) = 0 in terms of x, and a monotonically increasing scalar function Q(t) where t is a time-like variable. We define a vector R which is related to ∂h/∂x, and a vector P which is normal to R. We define an Optimal Descent Vector (ODV): u = αR + βP where α and β are optimized for fastest convergence. Using this ODV [x = λu], we derive an Optimal Iterative Algorithm (OIA) to solve F(x) = 0. We also propose an alternative Optimal Descent Vector [u = αF + βP ^{*}] where P ^{*} is normal to F. We demonstrate the superior performance of these two alternative OIAs with ODVs to solve NAEs arising out of the weak-solutions for several ODEs and PDEs. More importantly, we demonstrate the applicability of solving simply, most efficiently, and highly accurately, the Duffing equation, using 8 harmonics in the Harmonic Balance Method to find a weak-solution in time.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 335-362 |

Number of pages | 28 |

Journal | CMES - Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences |

Volume | 81 |

Issue number | 3-4 |

State | Published - 2011 |

## Keywords

- Invariant-manifold
- Nonlinear Algebraic Equations
- Optimal Descent Vector (ODV)
- Optimal Iterative Algorithm (OIA)
- Optimal Iterative Algorithm with an Optimal Descent Vector (OIA/ODV)
- Perpendicular operator