sd1 is known as the 'green revolution' gene in rice because its application in rice breeding has dramatically increased rice yield. Since the 'green revolution,' sd1 has been extensively used to produce modern semi-dwarf varieties. The extensive use of limited dwarfing sources may, however, cause a bottleneck effect in the genetic background of rice varieties. To circumvent this problem, novel and useful sources of dwarf genes must be identified. In this study, we identified three semi-dominant dwarf mutants. These mutants were categorized as dn-type dwarf mutants according to the elongation pattern of internodes. Gibberellin (GA) response tests showed that the mutants were still responsive to GA, although at a reduced rate. Map-based cloning revealed that the dwarf phenotype in these mutants was caused by gain-of-function mutations in the N-terminal region of SLR1. Degradation of the SLR1 protein in these mutants occurred later than in the wild type. Reduced interaction abilities of the SLR1 protein in these mutants with GID1 were also observed using the yeast two-hybrid system. Crossing experiments indicated that with the use of an appropriate genetic background, the semi-dominant dwarf alleles identified in this study could be used to alleviate the deficiency of dwarfing genes for breeding applications.
- DELLA protein
- Dwarf mutant