We provide recommendations, grounded in research findmgs, for the use of computer-mediated discussion (CMD) in instruction. For years, we have stutiied undergraduate and graduate level courses that made use ofsynchronous and asynchronou; electronically-mediated discussion as an important aspect of course design. Here, we discuss three questions and consider instructional recommendations grounded in our research: Can students successfully learn something of value as a result of participating in CMD? How can students' attentional and motivational responses to CMD inform course design? What are ways to structure CMD more effectively when classes include international student?.