Integrating health behavior theories to predict American's intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine

Haoran Chu, Sixiao Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

149 Scopus citations


Objective: Integrating constructs from three prominent health behavior theories including the extended parallel process model, the health belief model, and the theory of planned behavior, this study seeks to identify sociopsychological factors that influenced American's intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Method: An online survey was delivered to a U.S. sample (N = 934), assessing the influences of risk perception and fear associated with COVID-19, beliefs about and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines, self-efficacy, social and psychological contexts, and demographic characteristics on people's intention to get COVID-19 vaccines. Results: Most respondents intended to get vaccinated. However, they tended to underestimate their risks of contracting COVID-19. Disease exposure led to higher uptake intent via the mediation of fear. Safety concerns negatively influenced vaccination intention, while perceived community benefits were positively associated with vaccination intention. Positive attitudes toward vaccines and recent vaccine history were positively linked to vaccination intent. Conclusion: This study attests the effectiveness of HBT constructs in predicting people's intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Practice Implications: The results point to the importance of fostering confidence in vaccine safety and countering overoptimism of individual susceptibility to the disease in interventions promoting COVID-19 vaccines uptake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1878-1886
Number of pages9
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • COVID-19
  • COVID-19 vaccine
  • EPPM
  • HBM
  • TPB


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