The present study was designed to examine the relation between infant care and compliance in toddlers in a short-term longitudinal sample. This study also attempted to investigate mother and child moderators of this relationship. Sixty mothers participated when their toddlers were 14 months old, and 52 at 18 months. By 12 months, 20 infants had experienced full-time child care, 20 part-time child care, and 20 exclusive mother care. At both times, mothers were videotaped with their toddler during a compliance task. Part-time infant care children were less compliant with mother at 14 months, but this difference disappeared by 18 months. Maternal instrumental style was most predictive of compliance and noncompliance at both ages.