Inactivation at various temperatures of bovine viral diarrhea virus in beef derived from persistently infected cattle

C. L. Bratcher, B. S. Wilborn, H. M. Finegan, S. P. Rodning, P. K. Galik, K. P. Riddell, M. S. Marley, Y. Zhang, L. N. Bell, M. D. Givens

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2 Scopus citations


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that is enzootic in most cattle populations throughout the world. This virus is present throughout the body of persistently infected (PI) cattle. Previous research has not assessed the cooking temperature at which BVDV in meat from PI cattle can be inactivated. Therefore, muscle tissue from 6 PI cattle was harvested, refrigerated, frozen, and heated to various internal temperatures. The concentration of virus present was determined by virus isolation. Average cell culture infective doses (50% endpoint; CCID50) of BVDV per gram of frozen, uncooked meat from PI cattle were 105.85 CCID50/g of whole cuts and 106.02 CCID50/g of ground meat. The virus in whole and ground meat was consistently inactivated when cooked to temperatures greater than or equal to 75°C. A second objective of this research was to thoroughly reassess if Vero cells were permissive to BVDV infection in our laboratory to provide further indication of whether primates, including humans, might be susceptible to BVDV. Vero cells were not permissive to infection with any of 43 different strains of BVDV that readily replicated in Madin Darby bovine kidney cells. In conclusion, this bovine pathogen, which is not considered to be a human pathogen, can be inactivated by cooking ground or whole cuts of meat to 75°C or higher. Care should be taken to ensure that susceptible hosts such as pigs are not fed improperly cooked meat, meat by-products, or waste food originating from PI cattle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)635-641
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of animal science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2012


  • Beef
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus
  • Inactivation
  • Internal temperature
  • Persistently infected
  • Virus isolation


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