Rat erythrocytes were incubated in vitro with various selenium compounds at 37°. Hemolysis occurred with some selenium compounds but not with corresponding sulfur analogues. Selenite induced more rapid loss of intracellular glutathione (GSH) than did selenocystine but was less hemolytic. Cystine caused neither loss of intracellular GSH nor hemolysis. Addition of GSH to the incubation medium enhanced hemolysis by selenite and selenium dioxide but inhibited hemolysis by selenocystine. Inclusion of glucose in the incubation medium also inhibited selenocystine-induced lysis of erythrocytes from both selenium-supplemented rats and selenium-deficient rats. The results suggest a relationship between the oxidation of intracellular GSH and the hemolysis by selenocystine, selenite and selenium dioxide,.