Polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction passive samplers were used to evaluate long-term performance of a sand/gravel cap placed in 2005 in a tidally influenced shoreline in Puget Sound to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transport into overlying surface water. Sampling in both 2010 and 2018 measured porewater concentrations of <1 ng/L total PAHs in the cap layer. d-PAH performance reference compounds were used to evaluate the extent of equilibration of the contaminants onto the samplers and to estimate net upwelling velocities through a masstransfer model. The upwelling velocities were used to predict long-term migration of selected PAHs through the cap, showing that the cap is expected to continue being effective at limiting exposure of contaminants at the cap–water interface.
- passive sampling
- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons