Improved synchronverters with bounded frequency and voltage for smart grid integration

Qing Chang Zhong, George C. Konstantopoulos, Beibei Ren, Miroslav Krstic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Synchronverters are grid-friendly inverters that mimic conventional synchronous generators and play an important role in integrating different types of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, energy storage systems, etc., to the smart grid. In this paper, an improved synchronverter is proposed to make sure that its frequency and voltage always stay within given ranges, while maintaining the function of the original synchronverter. Furthermore, the stability region characterized by the system parameters is analytically obtained, which guarantees that the improved synchronverter is always stable and converges to a unique equilibrium as long as the power exchanged at the terminal is kept within this area. Extensive OPAL-RT real-time simulation results are presented for the improved and the original self-synchronized synchronverters connected to a stiff grid and for the case when two improved synchronverters are connected to the same bus with one operating as a weak grid, to verify the theoretical development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)786-796
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2018


  • Bounded frequency range
  • Bounded voltage range
  • Smart grid integration
  • Stability
  • Synchronverters
  • Virtual synchronous machines


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