Osteoarthritis and sarcopenia are two major joint and skeletal muscle diseases prevalent during aging. Osteoarthritis is a multifactorial progressive degenerative and inflammatory disorder of articular cartilage. Cartilage protection and pain management are the two most important strategies in the management of osteoarthritis. Sarcopenia, a condition of loss of muscle mass and strength, is associated with impaired neuromuscular innervation, the transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity. Management of sarcopenia requires addressing both skeletal muscle quantity and quality. Emerging evidence suggests that green tea catechins play an important role in maintaining healthy joints and skeletal muscle. This review covers (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoarthritis and sarcopenia, such as excessive inflammation and oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduced autophagy; (ii) the effects of green tea catechins on joint health by downregulating inflammatory signaling mediators, upregulating anabolic mediators, and modulating miRNAs expression, resulting in reduced chondrocyte death, collagen degradation, and cartilage protection; (iii) the effects of green tea catechins on skeletal muscle health via maintaining a dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation and boosting the synthesis of mitochondrial energy metabolism, resulting in favorable muscle homeostasis and mitigation of muscle atrophy with aging; and (iv) the current study limitations and future research directions.
- Green tea extract