The objective of this study was to determine if supplement withdrawal (omission of dietary vitamin and trace mineral premixes and 2/3 of inorganic P) 28-d preslaughter and the feeding of wheat middlings (dietary concentrations of 5, 15, or 30% from weaning to 16 kg, 16 to 28 kg, and 28 kg to slaughter, respectively) affect bone metabolism, bone strength, bone density, and the incidence of bone fractures at slaughter in pigs. Crossbred barrows (n = 64) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (with or without supplement withdrawal, and with or without wheat middlings). Serum was collected on d 0, 14, and 27 of the preslaughter withdrawal period to determine changes in the concentrations of osteocalcin, an indicator of bone formation, and pyridinoline, an indicator of bone resorption. The serum osteocalcin and pyridinoline concentrations on d 14 and 27 were analyzed as change from the d-0 concentration. At slaughter, radiographs of the lumbar vertebrae and of the right and left femurs were taken to determine the incidence of bone fractures. Third metacarpal bones were analyzed for bone mineral density, peak load, ultimate shear stress, and percent ash. Supplement withdrawal increased (P < 0.05) serum osteocalcin and pyridinoline concentrations, indicating an increase in osteoblast activity and bone resorption. Supplement withdrawal decreased (P < 0.01) bone mineral density, peak load, ultimate shear stress, and percent ash of the metacarpal bones. Dietary wheat middling inclusion did not alter bone quality. Neither supplement withdrawal nor wheat middling inclusion affected the incidence of bone fractures at slaughter. The results of this study indicate that removing inorganic P, vitamin premix, and trace mineral premix for 28 d preslaughter increases bone turnover and decreases bone quality.
- Supplement withdrawal